Institutional Sources Study
Note: This project is not
(above: Bernhard Schneider (1845-1907), Landschaft
am Rande eines Waldes, 1876. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)
About the project
A special TFAO emphasis
is building an archive of material, authored by scholars and other informed
individuals, beneficial for the study of art history in the United States.
As a public service, without charge to readers, TFAO annually publishes
a number of scholarly texts relating to American
representational art in its publication Resource
Library. Benefits to both the public and institutional copyright
holders are listed here.
Long term goals of TFAO are to encourage owners of catalogue
texts to provide free public access to them on their websites and for TFAO
to provide access on its website to texts from rare catalogues and others
not easily available elsewhere.
Resource Library contains thousands
of articles and essays published online since 1997. Some of the articles
identify exhibition catalogues with essays which may be candidates for online
publishing. Essays not identified in Resource Library articles may
also be candidates.
This project, develped in 2009, compliments the ongoing
American Art Review Study Project and the Collections-Centric
Scholarly Texts Project by identifying texts for potential online publishing
that are owned by museums and not likely to be identified through the other
TFAO projects. It would also enable independent contractors qualified to
provide service in instances where the necessary American Art Review
volumes are not available to them.
TFAO welcomes other organizations to use the procedures
developed for this project to add scholarly texts to their own websites.
Please click here for information
on this project's potential.
Texts of interest to TFAO include in-depth biographies
of artists not yet published online. A reference source for online postings
is Distinguished Artists, a national
registry of historic artists. Other texts may include historical and thematic
surveys not previously published online. Use of the indexes and search capabilities
within TFAO's web site plus broader Internet search through search engines
such as Google will eliminate essays and other bodies of scholarship already
published online. All essays will further Resource Library's goal
- ...building an interconnected body of knowledge including
the relationships of American artists to their teachers in foreign nations
and America, the history of American art centers, schools, ateliers and
museums, the evolution of methods and styles of artistic expression, and
changing cultural emphases over time within its field of interest.
All essays must contain a minimum of 600
words covering the topic of the submission, excluding "boilerplate"
text describing the source's address, hours of operation, fees, etc. Acknowledgments,
forewords, indexes, checklists and image captions are not included as approved
texts. Images are excluded. There is no upper limit on word count.
For a list of potential museum sources see Resource
Library's Art Museum, Gallery and Art Center
Index or for a search by state Sources
of Articles and Essays Indexed by State within the United States.
Google Books: Google announced in 2004 a collaboration with institutional libraries
to digitize large quantities of books: the Google
Books Library Project. The Google initiative to digitize the contents
on the New York Public Library, California, Harvard, Michigan, Oxford and
Stanford university libraries will result in a spectacular improvement in
the ability of scholars, students and teachers to find relevant texts for
Public domain books are available on an open access basis.
Copyrighted material is treated in one of three ways. Google negotiates
with cooperating publishers through its Google
Books Partner Program for "Limited Preview" of selected entire
pages, via search within the books by readers. For scanned books without
copyright permissions, "snippets" from pages are available. For
remaining books basic information is provided without ability to search
within the book. The snippets inform readers about the relevance of the
book to their subject of inquiry.
Google explains its service saying:
- For books that enter Book Search through the Library
Project, what you see depends on the book's copyright status. We respect
copyright law and the tremendous creative effort authors put into their
work. If the book is in the public domain and therefore out of copyright,
you can page through the entire book and even download it and read it offline.
But if the book is under copyright, and the publisher or author is not
part of the Partner Program, we only show basic information about the book,
similar to a card catalog, and, in some cases, a few snippets -- sentences
of your search terms in context. The aim of Google Book Search is to help
you discover books and learn where to buy or borrow them, not read them
online from start to finish. It's like going to a bookstore and browsing
- with a Google twist.
To conduct a Google Books search of published exhibition
catalogues of a museum go to Google Books,
enter in the search box enter: inpublisher:"name of museum" and
retrieve information on the catalogues.
Requirements for independent contractor
- Appreciation of the value of education in American art
and the desire to assist a non-profit organization in providing that education
free to the public.
- Access to a body of exhibition catalogues relating to
American representational art.
- Current staff members of an art museum who seek projects
using their private time.
- Former staff members of an art museum or long-term docents.
- Extensive written and verbal public interaction experience
including substantial experience in conversing with museum staff including
curators and directors.
- Proficiency with computers and access to necessary equipment
including a computer connected to the Internet, a document scanner, OCR
software and Microsoft Word.
- Students should not apply as they do not have sufficient
Nature of the business relationship
- TFAO will enter into an independent contractor relationship
through a written agreement
with an individual, business or corporation to perform specified services.
TFAO will have the right to control or direct only the result of the work
done by the independent contractor, and not the means and methods of accomplishing
the result. The contractor will not be considered an employee. No taxes
will be withheld from payments made by TFAO to the contractor. The contractor
will be responsible for all state and federal taxes due in connection with
- TFAO may be required to file information returns to report
certain types of payments made to independent contractors during the year
including Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, to report payments of $600
or more to persons not treated as employees (e.g. independent contractors)
for services performed.
Contractor's workplace, tools and preparation
- Independent contractor will provide his or her own workplace
for an engagement and will provide for the necessary equipment and software.
In addition, contractor will become familiar with TFAO's About
TFAO and Author Index, plus Resource
Library's Services to institutions,
Scholarly text from private sources, and
Content presentation guidelines, It's good
to know -- if asked about viewership -- that TFAO's website is viewed by
millions of people each year and is the most viewed website in the world
devoted to American art. Sometimes it pleases copyright holders to know
that many new people will be exposed to their texts and that TFAO will
enable them to be more widely known. See TFAO statistics.
1. TFAO identifies catalogues of interest published by
- Conducts Google Books inpublisher search to identify
exhibition catalogues for a museum which may contain essays for further
consideration. This list may be augmented by further information obtained
through the museum's staff.
- May eliminate certain museum
publishers and other publishers due to their books, or principal essays
in them, being published online through Google Books or similar means with
"Full View" capability, or intent to do so. This is to prevent
duplication of effort. For example, TFAO learned in June 2008 that the
Hudson River Museum is in the process
of having its books listed in Google Books, with some of the books scanned
to date. A Google Book Search conducted June 19, 2008 located three books
indicated as having been published by the Museum online via Google Books
in Full View mode. TFAO would not seek to additionally publish those three
books on its own site. TFAO is not pursuing online publishing of essays
in books -- in copyright, out of copyright, in print or out of print --
with free online access to those texts through any other provider.
- Posts on the museum's sub-index page a list of catalogue
- Reviews the museum's sub-index page for previously posted
essays and notes them next to listing of books identified in the Google
search and other means.
2. Potential contractor separately identifies catalogues
within a museum's library holdings published by the museum:
- Identifies a museum's self-published catalogues not previously
posted by TFAO on the museum's sub-index page.
- Checks compatibility of the page sizes, layouts, fonts,
page and text colors with the contractor's scanning equipment.
- Checks capability of the books to withstand the scanning
process so that damage is not done to the books.
- Check of individual essay word count to exceed 600 words.
- Copyright prior to 1992 to reduce conflicts with the
American Art Review Study Project
- Considers likelihood of copyright holder cooperation
- Eliminates certain museums
and other publishers and certain books as described above.
3. Potential contractor advises TFAO of:
- additional qualified catalogue candidates not perviously
posted by TFAO. Information for each catalogue includes: names of essays
with word count exceeding 600 words, title of book, publisher, verification
of copyright prior to 1992 to reduce conflicts with the American Art Review
Study Project, name of each qualifying essay author in the book and name
of such essay's copyright holder.
- catalogues identified by TFAO that should be removed
for consideration from the museum's sub-index page.
4. TFAO conducts further research on identified catalogues.
- Reviews, for identified authors, the Author
Index to find out whether the author is listed in TFAO's Author
Index and if a related article was published in American Art Review,
since those articles are covered in the
American Art Review Study Project.
- Reviews the Author Index
and active Collections-Centric Scholarly Texts Project
contracts to find out whether the author is actively covered in the Collections-Centric
Scholarly Texts Project.
- Reviews the Author Index
to check whether an essay was published in Resource Library relating
to a institution-published catalogue, but mistakenly not indexed on the
institution's sub index page.
- Reviews, for identified authors, Author
Index to find out whether a related essay is already published online in
FindArticles from The Art
Bulletin, Art Business News, Arts & Activities, ArtForum, Art Journal,
or Magazine Antiques.
- Decides on value of knowledge in non-published essays.
- Determines appropriateness of essays previously printed
on paper but not yet published online through checks of Distinguished
Artists, Author Index, Art
Museum, Gallery and Art Center Index, Resource Library search and Google keyword search.
5. Independent contractor and TFAO agree upon catalogue
- TFAO creates an online status
sheet for each named author and the author's essay. This worksheet
contains key information about the approval status and processing for a
text including excerpts from related emails. Copyright holder approvals
and related correspondence are recorded online on the status sheet in an
abbreviated fashion. Where appropriate, TFAO removes full email addresses
and private phone numbers out of respect of the privacy of correspondents.
Also, TFAO strives to remove from online-recorded correspondence any language
of a personal or opinionated nature.
6. Both parties enter into an agreement specifying texts for inclusion. TFAO will not compensate
contractor in any amount for work involved with texts that do not yield
approval emails directly to TFAO from the copyright owners plus complete
presentation packages. The risk that work done on a text will not lead
to a complete presentation package and subsequent payment by TFAO rests
solely with the contractor.
7. Independent contractor secures permission with copyright
owners for TFAO to reprint texts.
- Before seeking approvals of copyright owners, the contractor
should become familiar with TFAO's page on Acquisition
and deselection of content for the TFAO-dl.
This page provides reassurance to copyright owners through TFAO's promises
regarding reprinting of texts. TFAO's sample letters
may be of benefit to the contractor in phrasing emails or conversation
with copyright owners.
- Email letters should always be preceded by phone conversations
confirming the ownership of texts.
- If, during a conversation with a copyright holder, the
text's owner wishes to review the digitized and proofread texts produced
by the contractor before giving final approval for reprinting, the contractor
will email the text as a .doc file to the owner.
- TFAO will not send paper copies of online-printed texts
to owners. Links will be sent by TFAO as a courtesy when requested.
- TFAO has found that referrals to the rights and reproductions
departments of museums are almost always errors on the part of the museum.
If copyright owners challenge the legitimacy of the contractor's relationship
with TFAO they may call TFAO or send an email to TFAO's director for verification.
TFAO will be pleased to provide an email letter of introduction for the
benefit of the contractor.
8. Independent contractor arranges for copyright owners
to send permissions emails directly to TFAO (with CCs to the contractor)
indicating their approvals for reprinting online in Resource Library.
- The final approval emails from the copyright owners are
to be for one time publication in Resource Library,
9. Independent contractor conducts OCR, proofreading and
formatting in accordance with Content presentation
guidelines to 99.995% accuracy. Near-perfect proofreading accuracy is
required to keep the trust of the authors, students and teachers who rely
on TFAO's standards. OCR scanning, proofreading and formatting could be
conducted through a separate contract by another party if agreed to by TFAO
and contractor, but it is preferred to keep the work unified. The OCR, proofreading
and formatting steps should be done after permission is secured from
copyright owners for TFAO to reprint texts. The contractor will need to
make at least two trips to the library: the first trip to identify books
that meet agreed upon initial screening criteria, and the second trip to
photocopy the pages of the texts that will be scanned.
- TFAO has found over the years that it is helpful to separate
proofreading tasks to speed along the process and reduce errors. If a text
has footnotes, TFAO suggests first reformatting all of the footnote numbers
sprinkled through the essay at the same time (e.g. , , etc.). This
allows the contractor to better keep track of the numerical sequence while
proofreading and better insures that footnote numbers in the text are not
passed over. The second useful step is to create all paragraph breaks,
if needed, including indented paragraphs for long quotes. After that, all
other proofreading may be done paragraph by paragraph, attending to items
such as multiple periods within quotes (e.g. matter....I said), fixing
hyphens (e.g. "plants-and" into double hyphens "plants --
and"), and replacing all en dashes into single plain hyphens, etc.
Also hyphenated words at the end of lines in the original text are to be
joined back together in the new .doc file. Examples: worth-while, seper-ated.
10. Independent contractor emails to TFAO a complete presentation
package for each fully processed text to include:
- a. forwarded email letter of the contractor's CC copy
of the permission from the copyright owner previously sent to TFAO
- b. proofread and formatted text in .doc format according
to Content presentation guidelines.
- c. "about the author" text. For author information
the contractor provides either what the text's owner sends to the contractor
or uses basic facts from the catalog biography such as: "At
the time of writing of the above article [author name] was the [job title]
at the [name of employer]."
- d. Resource Library page header for the article
indicating contact information for comments or for securing reprints and
the "Editor's note" for the bottom of the page which includes
acknowledgements for assistance in gaining permissions and other information.
- For the page header TFAO first states the date of permission
and the owner of the text. TFAO always wants the reader to have a means
of reaching the text owner directly (valid at time of publication as TFAO
does not update owner info later on) -- without contacting TFAO. TFAO does
not want readers contacting it (usually years later) with the intent of
TFAO trying to figure out how to route them to the source. TFAO only provides
author/owner's personal information such as email addresses and phone numbers
if they expressly want TFAO to do so. Otherwise, regarding author
owners, TFAO publishes only the employer's postal address, or web site
and/or phone number. Sometimes TFAO publishes information on the last known
place of employment as the last resort. Here is a page header example:
- Editor's note: The following text was reprinted
in Resource Library on [month, day, year] with the permission of
[name of copyright holder]. If you have questions or comments regarding
the text, or wish to obtain a copy of the catalogue from which the text
was excerpted, please contact [name of copyright holder] directly through
this [phone number] and [address]:
- [phone number]
- [website or other address]
- TFAO will add gray color to the text at its office.
- For the "Editor's note" TFAO repeats part of
the header regarding the permission. Then the date of permission is added.
If applicable, reference is then made to an exhibition related to the article.
Lastly, TFAO acknowledges who helped gain the permission. If the article
was published in whole earlier in a catalogue or brochure, this first instances
of publication is noted. Here is an "Editor's note" example:
- Resource Library
- The above text was reprinted in Resource Library
on [month, day, year] with permission of [name of copyright holder],
which was granted to TFAO on [month, day, year]. [author's name]'s article
pertains to [name and dates of exhibition if applicable].
- Resource Library
wishes to extend appreciation to [name of contractor plus any other persons
who helped gain permission] for [her/his/their] help concerning permission
for reprinting the above text.
TFAO will make payment to the independent contractor for
an agreed upon number of complete presentation packages after those packages
are verified by TFAO to be of satisfactory quality. No payment will be made
for partially completed presentation packages.
Compensation for a text from a catalogue with one fully
- TFAO estimates that an independent contractor may spend
these amounts of time for baseline components. Elements include:
- 1. identification of authors, essay titles, copyright
owner(s): .25 hours per catalogue
- 2. permissions process: .4 hours per catalogue for included
- 3. preparation of presentation package for TFAO: .5 hours
per catalogue for included texts
- total = 1.25 hours per article @ hourly equivalent rate
- TFAO pays a fixed amount of $35 for this component of
a complete presentation package. The actual time spent by an independent
contractor may be more or less than the above estimated amount.
OCR scanning, proofreading and formatting charge:
- For OCR scanning TFAO will pay 52.5 cents per
page and for proofreading and formatting 84 cents per 1,000 characters.
- Spaces between words
and characters are not counted as characters.
- The total charge for a 10,600 character (about 2,000
words) text, for example, would be:
- 52.5 cents x 8 pages = $4.20
- 84 cents per 1,000 characters x 10.6 = $8.90
- total OCR scanning, proofreading and formatting = $13.10
- $13.10 + $35 baseline charge = $48.10
Note: If the museum is distant from the
contractor, TFAO may provide a gift to the institution to provide scans
that the contractor would otherwise perform if the books were in hand. In
this case the institution would email the scanned pages to the contractor
further processing. If the institution will not send scans to the contractor
and the books cannot be borrowed from the institution by the contractor
for scanning at the contractor's office, TFAO may reimburse the contractor
for out of pocket photocopying costs for texts at the institutions's library.
Scanning of such photocopies would be then be performed at the contractor's
office. These arrangements are for books previously approved by copyright
holders for republishing by TFAO.
Compensation for additional texts from an catalogue
Sometimes a catalogue may have more than one essay. If
an independent contractor and TFAO agree that the contractor may pursue
permissions for republishing specified essays in a catalogue beyond one
catalogue essay, then payment at the rate of $20 is made to the contractor
for each of the additional catalogue essays plus the OCR scanning, proofreading
and formatting charge described above is also paid to the contractor.
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Links to sources of information outside
of our web site are provided only as referrals for your further consideration.
Please use due diligence in judging the quality of information contained
in these and all other web sites. Information from linked sources may be
inaccurate or out of date. TFAO neither recommends or endorses these referenced
organizations. Although TFAO includes links to other web sites, it takes
no responsibility for the content or information contained on those other
sites, nor exerts any editorial or other control over them. For more information
on evaluating web pages see TFAO's General
Resources section in Online
Resources for Collectors and Students of Art History.
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