Editor's note: The following essay, with endnotes, was rekeyed and reprinted on June 4, 2002 in Resource Library Magazine with permission of the Lightner Museum. The essay was published in October 2001 in the 119 page illustrated book titled Lost Colony: The Artists of St. Augustine, 1930-1950, ISBN 0-97-13560-0-9. Images accompanying the text in the book were not reproduced with this reprinting except for two sample images. If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, or if you have interest in obtaining a copy of the book, please contact the Lightner Museum directly through either this phone number or web address:
Lost Colony: The Artists of St. Augustine, 1930-1950
by Robert W. Torchia
1. Maybelle Mann, Art in Florida, 1564-1945 (Sarasota, Fla.: Pineapple Press, 1999), p. 156, William H. Gerdts, Art across America: Two Centuries of Regional Painting 1710-1920, Vol. 2:, The South, Near Midwest (New York: Abbeville Press, 1990), pp. 77-79, summarizes St. Augustine's early history as an art colony up to shortly after 1900. In The Flowering of Florida Art: Tropical Landscapes from the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries [exh. cat., Eckert Fine Art] (Naples, Fla., 1997), pp. 11-12, Gerdts makes passing mention of some of the later artists who worked in the city.
2. For an overview of the subject, see Jeanette M. Perrin, St. Augustine Art Association -- An Historical Sketch (St. Augustine: Art Association, 1975).
3. For an important study of American artists who worked in French art colonies, see David Sellin, Americans in Brittany and Normandy 1860-1910 [exh. cat., Phoenix Art Museum] (Phoenix, Ariz,, 1982).
4. For an early account of American art colonies, see Lizzie W. Champney, "The Summer Haunts of American Artists," Century Magazine 30 (October 1885): 845-860. For a modern survey of art colonies in the United States, see Steve Shipp, American Art Colonies 1850-1930: A Historical Guide to America's Original Art Colonies and Their Artists (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996).
5. For a general history of St. Augustine, see The Oldest City: St. Augustine: Saga of Survival, ed. Jean Parker Waterbury (St. Augustine: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1983). The standard biography of Flagler is Edward N. Akin, Flagler: Rockefeller Partner and Florida Baron (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992). One of the earliest discussions of St. Augustine as an art center is that of Frederic A. Sharf, "St. Augustine: City of Artists, 1883-1895," Antiques 90 (August 1966): 220-223. For a recent study of art patronage during the Flagler era in St. Augustine, see Sandra Barghini, A Society of Painters: Flagler's St. Augustine Art Colony [exh. cat., Henry Morrison Flagler Museum] (Palm Beach, Fla., 1998).
6. "Heinrich Pfeiffer, Artist and Author," St. Augustine Illustrated Sun, 6 May 1949.
7. "Pen and Brush Club Is Now Organized in St. Augustine," Record, 19 January 1924.
8. Pillars is listed in WWWAA, vol. 3, p. 2611. Mercedes Powell, the wife of Hubert G. Powell, was active in civic and social organizations in St. Augustine. For biographical information on Rahner, a professional portrait photographer, see Charles Abel, Who's Who in American Portrait Photography (Cleveland, Ohio, 1943), n. p.; and Bernadine Bailey,"Victor Rahner, Prize Winner," typescript, Archives of the St. Augustine Art Association.
9. "The Galleon, New Name for Writers' and Artists' Club," Record, 23 January 1924.
10. "Mrs. Atkinson Writes History of Arts Club," Record, 1 April 1933. Parker, the brother of another charter member of the Galleon Club, the author Charles Parker, was noted for his paintings of historical subjects.
11. "Galleon Organizes Classes in Art," Record, 20 January 1925, Micka owned the Czech Art Importers and the Czechoslovac Art and Craft Shop in the Alhambra Hotel, 8 Granada Street.
12. Hawkins's papers are in the collection of the St. Augustine Historical Society.
13. "Davenport Park is Suggested for an Art Center," Record, 15 November 1931.
14. A. B. Barrett Comes before Commission: Record, 19 November 1931.
15. "New Arts Club Delegation Is before City, Record, 27 November 1931.
16. "New Art Club President Is Appreciative," Record, 22 December 1931. Hillbom may be identical to the Ralph Hillblom who is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1566.
17. "Elbert G. Drew, Business Man Who Turned to Art, Will Be Here This Week to Visit Local Arts Club," Record, 31 January 1932. Drew, who exhibited at the Art Institute Of Chicago during the 1920s, is listed in WWWAA, vol. 1, p. 961.
18. "Art Club Roster Now Shows List of 70 Members; 32 at Sketch Class and Interest Is on Increase," Record, 4 February 1932.
19. "Loan Exhibit Gets Interest," Record, 7 February 1932.
20. "St. Augustine Arts Club Makes Official Bow in Loan Exhibit and Address by Nunzio Vayana," Record, 19 February 1932.
21. "Sketch Class to Work at Fort in October Sunlight," Record, 23 October 1932.
22. Ward is listed in WWWAA, vol. 3, p. 3459.
23. "Exhibition at Arts Club Is Open to View," Record, 26 February 1933.
24. Meurer is listed in WWWAA, vol, 2, p. 2260, Alfred Frankenstein, After the Hunt: William Harnett and Other American Still Life Painters, 1870-1900 (Berkeley: University of California Press. 1953; rev. ed., 1969), p. 154, described him as "the last link with the great days of American trompe l'oeil."
25. "Visiting Artists Will Exhibit at Arts Club," Record, 15 March 1933, Newcastle is listed in WWWAA, vol, 2, p. 2409.
26. Lazzari is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1971.
27. "Exhibit of Landscapes and Portraits by Pietro Lazzari Opens Today at Arts Clubhouse at Davenport Park," Record, 5 April 1933; "Circuit Exhibition Will Open at Local Arts Club," Record, 19 April 1933. For a review of the latter exhibition see Catherine R. McCauley, "Federation of Art Critics Has Praise to Give," Record, 30 April 1933.
28. "Many Visiting at Arts Club," Record, 8 April 1933. Galpin is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1234.
29. Minutes of the regular meeting of the St. Augustine Arts Club, 5 June 1933.
30. Minutes of the regular meeting of the St. Augustine Arts Club, August 1933 (no date specified); minutes of the St. Augustine Arts Club, 11 September 1933.
31. Mrs. W. Y. AIkinson to the Honorable Mayor and City Commissioners, City of St. Augustine, 20 November 1933.
32. "Possibilities for Art Center Are Emphasized," Record, 3 November 1933.
33. Rogers is listed in WWWAA, vol, 3, p. 2810.
34. "Artists Are Charmed with Quaint Old St. Augustine," Record, 26 November 1933.
35. "Art Mart Has Attention of Large Number," Record, 21 January 1934. Meurer is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 2260.
36. "Business and Professional Women's Forum Has Interesting Meeting; Mrs.J. M. T. Reid is Guest Speaker," Record, 28 February 1934.
37. "Art Exhibit to Continue until Next Wednesday," Record, 30 March 1934.
38. Cole is listed in WWWAA, vol. 1, p. 690.
39. "Artist-Lecturer Returns to City," Record, 10 April 1934.
40. W. J. Cozens Jr. to Catherine L. Canova, secretary of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, undated letter of 1934.
41. For the history of the Provincetown Art Association, see Ross Moffett, Art in Narrow Streets: The First Thirty-three Years of the Provincetown Art Association, 1914-1947 (Falmourh, Mass.: Kendall Printing, 1964); and Dorothy Gees Seckler, Provincetown Painters, 1890s-1970s [exh. cat., Everson Museum of Art] (Syracuse, N.Y., 1977). Many of the Rockport artists who were active in St. Augustine during the years covered in this study are listed in Kitty Parsons Recchia, ed., Artists of the Rockport Art Association (Rockport Art Association, 1940), and Artists of the Rockport Art Association (Gloucester; Mass.: Cape Ann Ticket and Label Co,, 1946).
42. Minutes of a special meeting of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 25 October 1934.
43. American Art Annual 31 (1934): p, 117.
44. Quoted from copies of letters from Catherine L. Canova to Nina Hawkins and Eugene Masters, both dated 15 November 1934. On 26 January 1934 the club had written to Masters and thanked him for his "efforts in securing and delivering furniture for the clubroom at Davenport Park."
45. Catherine L. Canova to W. S. Towne, president, Tourist Club of St. Augustine, 15 November 1934.
46. Thompson is listed in WWWAA, vol. 3, p. 3292.
47. "Artist Has Studio at 10 Granada," Record, 17 January 1935,
48. The Record listed the sculptor's name as Leno Lazzari, who was presumably the same person as Pietro.
49. "Art Club Shows Marked Growth in Last Year," Record, 13 February 1935.
50. "Writers Group Has Interesting Meet; Art Club Sponsors," Record, 21 May 1935.
51. Minutes of the Arts Club of St. Augustine Arts Club, 4 June 1935.
52. Minutes of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 3 December 1935.
53. Minutes of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 3 December 1935.
54. Minutes of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 7 January 1936.
55. Clay is listed in WWWAA, vol. 1, p. 662.
56. "Noted Artist Will Visit Local Art Club This Evening," Record, 13 February 1936.
57. A description of this fiesta is given in "Aviles Street Is Really for Fiesta Event," Record,, 2 April 1936, For a general discussion of these festivals, see Patricia C. Griffin," The Impact of Tourism and Development on Public Ritual and Festival: St. Augustine, Florida, 1821-1987,"Ph.D. diss., University of Florida, 1988.
58. Minutes of the regular monthly meeting of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 6 October 1936.
59. Kim's Guide to Florida (Anna Maria, Fla.: Ethel Byrum Kimball, 1936), p. 54.
60. Although Hamilton frequently exhibited at the Arts Club and may have served as its president during the early or middle 1930s, little is known of his life. According to the St. Augustine Art Association's records, he had studied at the Art Students League and the National Academy of Design in New York, and came to St. Augustine in 1925. He is listed in the 1930 city directory as a commercial artist who worked for the Record. In November 1932 members of the Arts Club held a surprise party for Hamilton when he set up a studio in the Fatio House ("Studio Party Is Given to Honor R. W, Hamilton," Record, 9 November 1932). According to the minutes of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 3 September 1935, the members resolved to send Hamilton a wedding present.
61. "Arts Club Tea Well Attended," Record, 4 January 1937. Johnston is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1750.
62. "Exhibition Tea at Arts Club Proves to Be Popular Event as Scores Respond to Invitation and Attend," Record, 1 February 1937.
63. "Music and Art Are Vital in City's Program," Record, 4 July 1937.
64. She was the wife of Babe E. Erwin, and worked as the secretary and treasurer of the H. E. Wolfe Construction Co.
65. Minutes of the regular monthly business meeting of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 2 February 1937.
66. Thorne is listed in WWWAA, vol. 3, p. 3294.
67. Claire Luckner, "Art Colony Busy Completing Works for First Exhibition Tea Sunday," Record, 21 January 1938.
68. "Art Exhibition and Tea Event: this Afternoon at Local Gallery," Record, 13 February 1938.
69. For biographical information on Lockwood, see his obituary," Record, 4 August 1952.
70. The standard monograph on Moffett is Josephine C. Del Deo, Figures in a Landscape: The Life and Times of the American Painter Ross Moffett 1888-1971 (Virginia Beach, Va.: Donning Co., 1994), Gregory is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1372.
71. "St. Augustine's Art Center Adds to Interest of City," Record, 30 July 1939.
72. Carita Doggett Corse to J. Dexter Phinney, 9 November 1935. The minutes to a meeting of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 5 February 1936, record that Phinney "offered the assistance of the club collectively and individually" to the project.
73. Florida: A Guide to the Southernmost State (New York: Oxford University Press, 1939), p. 162.
74. Little is known about Casenelli, whom Reid proposed for membership in the Arts Club on February 2, 1937. According to Panorama of Cincinnati Art, 1850-1950 [exh. cat., Cincinnati Art Galleries] (Cincinnati, 1986), he was born in New York and worked in Cincinnati before moving to Muskegon, Michigan. Casenelli specialized in American Indian subjects at the turn of the century, and was later noted for his Mediterranean scenes, Arab subjects, and views of Venice. Claire Luckner, "Art Colony Busy Completing Works for First Exhibition Tea Sunday," Record, 21 January 1938, commented on his "crimson and golden sunsets before which there is sure to be a group of admirers as at every showing of his work." Castleden, who was identified as a landscape painter in the 1937 St. Augustine city directory, is listed in WWWAA, vol. 1, p. 595; Gareschi is listed in WWWAA, vol 2, p. 1242. Hawkins, who worked for the Record, was married to Nina Hawkins's brother Carl W. Hawkins, an executive of the Model Land Company. Little is known about Marjorie Pangburn (the widow of Clifford Pangburn), other than that she was eccentric and interested in modern art. Witherstine, who was elected to membership in the Arts Club on December 14, 1938, is listed in WWWAA, vol. 3, p. 3613. According to Claire Luckner,"With the Artists," Record, 15 January 1939, he had passed through St. Augustine around 1923, and returned during the winter season of 1938-1939. Witherstine's woodcuts and etchings were exhibited at the St. Augustine Art Shop and Gallery in March 1939; see "Tea Today to Open Exhibit," Record, 5 March 1939. He served as president of the Provincetown Art Association for the 1945-1946 season.
75. Claire Luckner, "A Visit with Artists on Aviles Street," Record, 29 January 1939.
76. Claire Luckner, "With the Artists," Record, 31 January 1939. De Nagy is listed in WWWAA, vol. 1, p. 888.
77. Claire Luckner, "Exhibit of Arts and Crafts Strikes New Note in Arts Club Tea Sunday," Record, 6 February 1939.
78. Claire Luckner, "Art Club Notes," Record, 12 February 1939. Chaffee is listed in WWWAA, vol. 1, p. 605.
79. Heldner, whose name is sometime spelled Heldmer, was active in New Orleans; he is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1523.
80. For the history of the Alcazar see Thomas Graham, "Flagler's Grand Hotel Alcazar:' El Escribano: The St. Augustine Journal of History 26 (1989): 1-32; this article was published in pamphlet form by the St. Augustine Historical Society in 1989.
81. "Commissioners Hear Discussion of Art, Erosion, and Geography," Record, 9 January 1940; "Arts Club Seeks Headquarters in Hotel Alcazar," Record, 14 January 1940.
82. "Over 500 Attend Opening of Arts Gallery in Alcazar," Record, 4 March 1940.
83. Colors from the Palette (March 1953).Vaill was an active member of many of St. Augustine's cultural and civic organizations, and later became president of the St. Augustine Art Association; for biographical information on her, see her obituary, Record, 18 December 1967.
84. W. Lee Dickson, "Alice Lawton, Art Editor of Boston Post, Has Interesting Cosmopolitan Career; Sees Possibilities for St. Augustine," Record, 2 February 1947. For biographical information on Lawton, see WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1969; and "St. Augustine Art Association to Present Miss Alice Lawton as Sunday Speaker," Record, 5 March 1953.
85. Newhall is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 2411. Hammond, who is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1442, was a popular teacher in Rockport, and some of her students followed her to St. Augustine, where she became an active participant in the Arts Club's activities.
86. Blenner is listed in WWWAA, vol. 1, pp. 346-347; Larsson is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1952. See also "Carle John Blenner, Famous Artist, Is Sojourning in St. Augustine," Record, 31 January 1940.
87. Minutes of a regular meeting of the St. Augustine Arts Club, 8 May 1940.
88. Clarence Off, "Down Aviles Street," Record, unidentified issue of 1940.
89. "Abram Poole, Noted Portrait Painter, Enjoying Visit Here," Record, 29 March 1942. Poole, who is listed in WWWAA, vol, 3, p. 2636, returned to St. Augustine and joined the Arts Club on February 4, 1947.
90. Memorandum from Benoni Lockwood, 25 April 1942.
91. Langston Moffett,"Renowned Artist Believes City Can Become Noted Art Center," Record, 12 April 1942.
92. Henry de Coursey, letter to the editor, Record, 11 June 1942; this letter was pasted into one of the Art Club scrapbooks.
93. "New Exhibit at Arts Club This Afternoon," Record, 28 June 1942.
94. "Bundles for Britain's First Fall Benefit Opens Tomorrow," Record, 23 September 1942; "Opening of War Posters Exhibit of Much Interest," Record, 25 September 1942.
95. The Smiths lived in Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania, and were active in Rockport, Provincetown, and Gloucester; see "Mr. and Mrs. Oliver Smith, Recent Newcomers to City, Do Unusually Interesting Work in Several Fields," Record, 24 December 1942. Oliver Phelps Smith is listed in WWWAA, vol, 3, p. 3088, and his wife Hope Smith is listed on p. 3080.
96. Langston Moffett, "Richard Miller, Internationally Famous Artist, Finds Ancient City Ideal and Has 'All Qualifications,'" Record, 24 January 1943. For Miller see Marie Louise Kane, A Bright Oasis: The Paintings of Richard E. Miller [exh. cat., Jordan-Volpe Gallery] (New York, 1997).
97. "Local Arts Colony Members Are Featured in Exhibit Being Held at Rockport on Cape Ann, Mass," Record, 6 August 1943. The Rockport Art Association has no record of this exhibition.
98. Minutes of the last business meeting of the season of the St. Augustine Arts Club, 7 May 1943.
99. "Exhibition at Art Club to Be Event Sunday," Record, 4 November 1943.
100. "New Exhibition Includes Coast Guard Sketches," Record, 21 November 1943. According to "The Arts Corner," Record, 26 March 1946, Holmes was born in Canada. After attending Brantford College, he studied art in Montreal, Ottawa, and Toronto. He worked as a sculptor for three years, and was encouraged to take up painting when he sold a picture from his first exhibition in Ottawa. Holmes settled in St. Augustine around 1937, and became a familiar figure in the city's art scene. He became a U.S. citizen in 1946, but continued to exhibit in Canada. Holmes specialized in landscapes and traveled extensively in search of subjects; he was particularly inspired by a voyage to the Indonesian islands of Bali and Java. The Lightner Museum owns a large number of his paintings.
101. Phil Sawyer, "Local Artists Open New Year with Refreshing Display of New Trends; U.S. Coast Guard Well Represented," Record, 16 February 1944.
102. Dow's large collection of American fine and decorative arts is now on display in the Dow Gallery of American Arts at the Museum of Arts and Sciences in Daytona Beach, Florida; he also reassembled the historic properties that are now the St. Augustine Historic Museum Center Complex. See Kenneth W. Dow, "Living with Antiques: In St. Augustine, Florida," Antiques 48 (October 1945): 201-203. Princess Angela Scherbatow (d. 1958; nèe Angela Mills) was the wife of an exiled Russian prince, Boris Scherbatow. The couple lived in a hunting lodge called Cherokee Grove in Flagler County that had been built in 1888 by her first husband Henry Mason Cutting; the site is now called Princess Place Reserve.
103. Little is known about Tracey L'Engle, A member of the L'Engle family verbally described her as "the original hippie -- very independent: and stated that she had attended Wellesley College and planned to become an actress before taking up art.
104. Lawrence commented that "St. Augustine is a tight little town. You see and feel the prejudice everywhere:" See Ellen Harkins Wheat, Jacob Lawrence, American Painter [exh. cat., Seattle Art Museum] (Seattle, 1986), p. 69.
105. Phil Sawyer, "Entire Show at Local Art Gallery Is Devoted to Works of Blanche Lazzell; This Now Open to Public Generally," Record, 26 February 1944.
106. Phil Sawyer, "Exhibition of Ruth Hammond's Work in Watercolors Open to Public Today; Show Great Feeling and Good Style," Record, 5 March 1944.
107. "Benoni Lockwood, Arts Club President, States Purpose of Organization and Its Activities," Record, 4 April 1944.
108. "Event of National Importance Is Heade Exhibition Opening at Arts Club Sunday Afternoon," Record, 25 February 1945.
109. Benoni Lockwood, "Annual Report of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 1944-1945," 20 June 1945.
110. "Xavier Barile," Record, 13 January 1946; he was elected a member of the club on November 7, 1945. Barile is listed in WWWAA, vol. 1, p. 204.
111. "The Arts Corner," Record, 1 February 1946; Alexandre Paulovich de Leslie is listed in WWWAA, vol, 1, p. 878.
112. "Benoni Lockwood, President, Presents Annual Report Showing Activities of the Arts Club of St. Augustine," Record, 7 July 1946.
113. Minutes of the Arts Club of St. Augustine, 13 November 1945. Warren's "Report of Entertainment Committee," 20 November 1945, listed additional "ways and means of earning money for the Building Fund."
114. "Attraction of Businesses and Residents, Beach Development is C[hamber] of C[ommerce's] Goal, Dillin Says," Record, 8 January 1946.
115. "Rotarians Hold Informal Meet," Record, probably January 1946.
116. "What Is Business Man's Reaction to Arts Club?" Record, 8 February 1946. Toomer was elected an honorary member of the Arts Club at a meeting of October 15, 1946.
117. Minutes of the regular business meeting of the St. Augustine Arts Club, 5 March 1946.
118. "Exhibition of Art Work by Elementary School Children, Arts Club, April 21-26," Record, 14 April 1946.
119. At the regular business meeting of June 4, 1946, Pangburn reported that "although white parents and teachers showed little interest, the colored school children and their teachers were keenly interested," and cited the opinion of the principal of the Orange Street School that "the exhibition should be made an annual one as it would give the children something to work for."
120. "Arts Club Costume Ball to Be Event of Friday Next at the Civic Center," Record, 24 February 1946,
121. Arrangements for this transition took place in October, and were formally enacted at the Arts Club's regular business meeting on November 5, 1946.
122. Minutes of the regular business meeting of the St. Augustine Arts Club, 5 November 1946.
123. Moffett, Art in Narrow Streets, pp. 44-64.
124. "Benoni Lockwood, President, Presents Annual Report Showing Activities of the Arts Club of St. Augustine," Record, 7 July 1946.
125. MacLeish, brother of the novelist Archibald MacLeish (1892-1982), is listed in WWWAA, vol, 2, p. 2143; he was elected a member of the Arts Club at a meeting of March 5, 1946.
126. "Four Special Exhibits of Art Planned by St. Augustine Arts Club; These to Come from Museum of Modern Art," Record, 24 October 1946.
127. W. Lee Dickson,"Many Members of Local Arts Club Have Varied Plans for This Summer," Record, 6 April 1947. According to the minutes of the regular business meeting of the Arts Club of St, Augustine, 7 January 1947, it was decided to approach Dickson "with the proposition of giving us four news stories, to be paid for on a monthly basis of $20. Mr. Benoni Lockwood stated that he would pay one half of this amount the first month."
128. "Great Variety of Paintings Hung at Current Exhibition of Art," Record, date unspecified, probably April 1947.
129. Norman MacLeish,"Exhibit of Children's Paintings and Drawings Now On at Art Club Galleries Shows Great Promise," Record, 2 May 1947.
130. "Harold Etter to Give Talk at Arts Club," Record, 6 January 1947.
131. "Hy Mayer, Noted Cartoonist, and Illustrator, Is Drawn to This City by Its Art Atmosphere," Record, 12 January 1947; "Hy Mayer's Work Special Feature of Art Association's Exhibit," Record, 2 February 1964. Mayer is listed in WWWAA,vol. 2, p. 2229.
132. Herald Tribune Book News, 2, no. 37 (21 February 1947): 1.
133. Benoni Lockwood, "Benoni Lockwood, President, Presents Annual Report Showing Activities of the Arts Club of St. Augustine," Record, date unspecified, 1947.
134. Jones is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 1762; Lowell, in vol. 2, p. 2071; Newhall, in vol. 2, p, 2411; Spoor, in vol. 3, p. 3128; Whitney, in vol, 3, p. 3553; and Withington, in vol. 3, p. 3613.
135. W. Lee Dickson, "Rockport Colony in St. Augustine Grows; This Means Much to Artists Group Here," Record, 10 February 1947.
136. Thieme, St. Augustine and Nassau [exh. cat., Grand Central Art Galleries, Inc.] (New York, 1948), n.p.; quoted by Bernadine Bailey, "Anthony Thieme's New York Exhibit Features Many St. Augustine Scenes. Distinguished Artist Arrives Here," Record, 14 November 1948.
137. This anecdote is related in an unsigned, three-page, typed document that was clearly written by Muller-Uri, probably late in 1954, when dissatisfaction erupted over a new trustee system of governing the Art Association. This document is henceforth referred to as Muller-Uri ms.
138. "Two Speakers on Rotary Club Luncheon Program," Record, 15 April 1947.
139. "Arts Club of St. Augustine Has Extensive Plans for Seasonal Activities for Building Fund," Record, date unspecified, 1947.
140. "Mrs. J. M. T. Reid Gives Talk [at] Arts Club Tonight," Record, 10 March 1948.
141. Hildegarde Muller-Uri, Annual Report of the St.. Augustine Art Association, 1947-1948.
142. "St. Augustine Art Association Elects Officers at Annual Meeting; Howard B. Bonfield Is New President," Record, 8 April 1948. These ideas had first been raised in a meeting on January 6, 1948, when William L'Engle suggested changing the club's name, and Muller-Uri "expressed herself in favor of making the Club a Civic affair, thereby encouraging business people, or others, without membership in the Club, to become interested in and enroll for classes offered by the Club."
143. Muller-Uri ms.
144. Muller-Uri ms.
145. Muller-Uri ms.
146. Muller-Uri ms.
147. Minutes of the meeting of the board of directors of the St. Augustine Art Association, 20 April 1948.
148. Minutes of the regular monthly business meeting of the St. Augustine Art Association, 9 November 1948.
149. Minutes of the regular monthly business meeting of the St. Augustine Art Association, 7 December 1948.
150. For a discussion of Wiggins's career, see Andrienne L. Walt, "Guy Wiggins: American Impressionist: American Art Review, 4, no. 3 (December 1977): 100-113.
151. "Guy Wiggins, Famous Artist, to Open Art School Here in January; a Great, Distinctive Honor for St. Augustine," Record, unspecified issue of 1948.
152. Minutes of the meeting of the board of directors of the St. Augustine Art Association, 18 January 1949.
153. "Mayor Issues National Art Week Proclamation," Record, 2 November 1948.
154. "Art Week Is Acclaimed," Record, 3 November 1948.
155. Minutes of the meeting of the board of directors of the Art Association of St. Augustine, 30 November 1948.
156. Minutes of the regular monthly meeting of the St. Augustine Art Association, 7 December 1948. For Potter see "Museum of Wax Figures Is Planned for St. Augustine by George Potter, to Probably Open Here Next January," Record, 6 July 1950.
157. Prospectus, St. Augustine Art Association and Calendar of Exhibitions,Season 1950-1951,
158. Muller-Uri ms.
159. Robert W. Harper IIL "Otto C. Lightner in St. Augustine: The Making of a Museum:," El Escribano: The St. Augustine Journal of History 17 (1980): 59-83.
160. "Mrs, Husson Is Given Praise on Success of Ball," Record, 1 March 1949.
161. Minutes of the meeting of the board of directors of the St. Augustine Art Association, 15 March 1949.
162. The quotations from Bonfield's speech are taken from his own typed and annotated copy. The document is undated, but the date of the talk can be approximated by the various events he mentions. According to the minutes of the business meeting of the Art Association of St. Augustine, 22 December 1948, Bonfield had originally been scheduled to address the Rotary Club on January 17, 1949.
163. Minutes of the meeting of the board of directors of the St. Augustine Art Association, 15 February 1949.
164. Howard B. Bonfield to Evelyn Vaill Kettner, 10 September 1954.
165. "Substantial Awards to Be Presented for Paintings in Exhibit Opening Sunday in Art Association Gallery; Public Is Invited," Record, 30 November 1950.
166. Minutes of the business meeting of the St. Augustine Art Association, 4 May 1949.
167. Alice Lawton, quoted in "Splendid Article on St. Augustine and Its Art Colony, Is Written for Boston Post by Its Art Editor," Record, 5 June 1949.
168. Art Digest 23 (1 August 1949): 8.
169. "Exhibition of Paintings and Tea Today, Gallery of St. Augustine Art Association," Record, 18 December 1949,
170. For Cunningham see Robert Hobbs, Earl Cunningham: Painting an American Eden (New York: Harry N. Abrams, n.d.)
171. Minutes of the business meeting of the St. Augustine Art Association, 12 October 1949. Meurer, who was known as A. J. Ted Meurer, wrote a pamphlet called "Shrines of George Washington" (n.d.) in which he provided biographical information about himself and explained the significance of each of the paintings in the series. Meurer is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 2260.
172. "Elaborate Preparations Being Made for Success of Beaux Arts Ball," Record, 15 January 1950.
173. "Exhibit," Record, 3 December 1950,
174. "Paintings for Harold Wayne Award on Exhibit Today with December Exhibit," Record, 17 December 1950.
175. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 19 December 1950.
176. Fled Benson,"Random Jottings," Record, 19 December 1950; and "Art Exhibit Will Be Held in Slave Market Friday; Public Is Invited," Record, 21 December 1950.
177. Minutes of the St, Augustine Art Association, 2 January 1951.
178. Minutes of the annual meeting of the St. Augustine Art Association, 3 April 1951.
179. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 6 February 1951.
180. "St. Augustine Association to Hold Reception in Exchange Bank Where Now Some 60 Paintings Are on Exhibition," Record, 25 March 1951. American Art Directory, vol. 38 (New York: R. R. Bowker Co,, 1952), p. 61, described "Art in the Home" as "a lending service, whereby responsible citizens may borrow paintings for thirty days."
181. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 6 March 1951. Stevens is listed in WWWAA, vol, 3, p, 3171.
182. "Judges Prominent in Art World Will Make Awards in March Exhibition of Paintings Which Opens Sunday Afternoon, Art Association Gallery," Record, 2 March 1951, Pataky is listed in WWWAA, vol. 3, p. 2535: Smith (a geometric abstractionist), in vol. 3, p. 3085; and Purman, in vol. 3, p. 2679.
183. "Art Association Members Plan Exhibit of Paintings by School Children; Free Lectures on Art Also Planned at Last Night's Meeting," Record, 7 March 1951.
184. According to information supplied by Marcy Neth, reference librarian of the Art Institute of Chicago, Emling was born in Bonfield, Illinois, where he attended Bonfield Public School and Herscher High School, He went to Illinois State University and prepared for a teaching career. Emling entered the service for four years during World War II, and spent half of his army career in the Pacific theater, where he found time to paint when not on duty. After the war he entered the Art Institute of Chicago, studying all the phases of painting and interior decorating. He taught painting, lectured on art, and worked as an interior decorator. Emling was also active in Naples, Florida, and Deer Isle, Maine.
185. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 11 November 1952.
186. "First School Student Art Exhibit Opens [at] Art Association Gallery, Sunday, May I3th, Elementary and Secondary Students to Compete," Record, 15 April 1951.
187. Minutes of the annual meeting of the St. Augustine Art Association, 3 April 1951.
188. Minutes of the St, Augustine Art Association, 24 July 1951. Influential members, such as Muller-Uri, Reid, and Vaill, resented Bonfield's personal involvement with the advertising campaign, and this later became a very contentious issue.
189. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 6 November 1951.
190. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 6 November 1951.
191. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 27 November 1951.
192. Emmett Fritz won honorable mention."Artists of St. Augustine Are Now Planning for New Exhibit in Gallery January 6; 'Distant Drums' Contest Winners Get Trophies," Record, 2 January 1952, Preparations for the event are discussed in the minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association meeting, 4 December 1951.
193. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 8 January 1952.
194. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 5 February 1952; O'Hara is listed in WWWAA, vol, 2, p, 2459,
195. "January Exhibit of Paintings at Art Gallery Yesterday Is Viewed by Many; Hildegarde Muller-Uri Wins First Faw Award; Afternoon Tea Is Enjoyed," Record, 4 January 1954.
196. "January Art Exhibit Opens Sunday in Gallery, Public Invited to View Paintings and Enjoy Tea," Record, 28 December 1953.
197. Oakley is listed in WWWAA, vol. 2, p. 2450.
198. "April Exhibit Opens Sunday in Art Association Gallery; Two Local Members on Judges' List for This Month; Public Is Invited to View Paintings," Record, 3 April 1953.
199. There was a lengthy discussion about exhibiting copies at the St.. Augustine Art Association's meeting on January 2, 1951. Because historical scenes were often based on old prints, photographs, and sketches, the members found it "practically impossible to lay down a hard and fast rule, except that when a picture offered is known to be a straight copy of another picture, it cannot be accepted."
200. Minutes of the St Augustine Art Association, 6 May 1952.
201. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 11 November 1952.
202. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 6 January 1953.
203. Max W. Kettner,"Report of Chairman of Exhibit for March of Dimes," 31 January 1953. For information on Kettner, who was born in Germany, see his obituary," Record, 12 August 1963.
204. Woodward is listed in WWWAA, vol. 3, p. 3636.
205. Bonfield announced Woodward's impending arrival in a meeting on November 11, 1952.
206. "Stanley Woodward Is Speaker This Afternoon [at] Art Association Gallery; Is Noted for His New England Marine Scenes; Public Invited," Record, 22 February 1953. Colors from the Palette (February 1953) announced Woodward's presence and mentioned that he "is acquainted with Florida life and beauty for he has a series of paintings in the Ford Times magazine under the title 'Florida Rivers -- Waterways to the Primitive.'" Woodward is listed in WWWAA, vol. 3, p. 3636.
207. Nina Hawkins to Howard B. Bonfield, 25 September 1952. The Art Association contributed $50 to the endeavor.
208. "Art Book Collection at Local Library Is Now Open to Public," Record, 1 March 1953.
209. "Howard B. Bonfield to Again Head Art Association; M. W. Brashears, Treasurer of Group for Twenty-Seven Years, Resigns," Record, 9 April 1953. Muller-Uri's list of Bonfield's accomplishments and qualifications is in the Art Association archives.
210. Minutes of the St. Augustine Art Association, 5 May 1953.
211. "Art Association Members Have Constructive Plan for Preserving Antiquity of City; Will Cooperate with League of Women Voters' Plan for Preservation," Record, 6 May 1953.
212. Minutes of a special meeting of the St. Augustine Association, 21 May 1953.
213. Minutes of the regular monthly meeting of the St. Augustine Art Association, 9 November 1948.
214. Muller-Uri ms.
215. Little is known about Newcastle, who first came to St. Augustine in the summer of 1932, after a friend sent her some clippings from the Record about the growing art colony. She participated in the Arts Clubs visiting artists' exhibition the following year, and thereafter wintered in the city on a regular basis. For biographical information about her see "Visiting Artists Will Exhibit at Arts Club," Record, 15 March 1933.
216. The terms of the agreement were set forth in a document prepared in a meeting of the board of trustees on January 15, 1954; the full details of the transaction are recorded in an audit prepared by the accounting firm Edmiston and McGhin on April 30, 1954. Reid's copy of the audit is preserved in the Art Association archives.
217. "December Exhibit of Paintings and Afternoon Tea Sunday Afternoon; Public to Be Guests of Art Association in Gallery, Lightner Museum Building," Record, 4 December 1953.
218. Evelyn Vaill Kettner,"Local Art Association Building to Open," Record, 29 January 1954.
219. Minutes of the regular monthly meeting of the St.. Augustine Art Association, 4 August 1953.
220. Minutes of a special meeting of the St. Augustine Art Association, 27 July 1953.
221. "Resolution of the St. Augustine Art Association to Amend Charte." 4 August 1953.
222. Muller-Uri wrote a memo in which she noted that Bacon and Barnes had been appointed by Bonfield, and that they "know nothing about the Club [and] never did any work up to the time" they became trustees. According to his obituary, Record, 17 June 1960, Checchi was a native of Florence, Italy, who had practiced dental surgery in New York City for twenty-five years before retiring to St. Augustine around 1947.
223. "Ground Is Broken for Art Building," Record, 9 September 1953.
224. C. E. Wright, "New Art Center, St. Augustine Colony Opens Building for Exhibitions and Social Affairs," New York Times, 31 January 1954; the article was reprinted in "City's New Art Center Is Given Play in Sunday's New York Times," Record, 1 February 1954.
225. Evelyn Vaill Kettner, "Mayor-Commissioner Aubrey Davis Cuts Ribbon Formally Opening Art Center Sunday; St. Augustine Art Association Host to Hundreds during Afternoon," Record, 1 February 1954. Plans for the opening exhibition were discussed in a board of trustees meeting on January 26, 1951. The Provincetown Art Association has no record of Druckleib.
226. Minutes of a special meeting of the trustees of the St. Augustine Art Association, 23 February 1954.
227. Minutes of a special meeting of the trustees of the St. Augustine Art Association, 8 March 1954.
228. Minutes of the meeting of the board of trustees of the St. Augustine Art Association, 30 March 1954.
229. Muller-Uri wrote, "What right has Bonfield to call our Art Ass'n a Museum and Art Center? He has taken the liberty of running this Ass'n as he wishes without the consent of Trustees or members. We have all been pidgeoned holed [sic] [and] the Trustees have very little to say" (Muller-Uri ms.).
230. Neil Harris, The Artist in American Society: The
Formative Years, 1790-1860 (Chicago: Chicago University
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About the author
At the time of publication of the essay in Lost Colony: The Artists of St. Augustine, 1930-1950, the following biographical notes for the author were included in the book:
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